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Origin of Redshift 
Redshift of Light versus Drift of Quantum States.
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        It is observed that spectral lines of light received from a deep gravitational potential at the surface of a massive star are redshifted with respect to the corresponding spectral line observed from atoms located on Earth.  This is an observed fact.  I certainly agree with that.  However, it is very odd that physicists are restricting their study to a prospective redshift of photons, during the time they travel through the gravitational field on their way to the Earth.  Strangely, most physicists are not questioning whether the atoms, located deep inside the gravitational potential on the sun’s surface, emit the same spectral lines than when located on Earth. 
We know that hydrogen atoms (and all matter) emitted by the Sun, are indistinguishable from the atoms already existing on Earth, at the moment they reach us. 
        However, that does not prove that these atoms were identical at the moment when THEY WERE LOCATED ON THE SUN. 
There are convincing arguments proving that quantum states of atoms (and molecules) are shifted during the travel between Earth and the Sun because they absorb gravitational energy. 
        This is calculated theoretically and observed experimentally. 
        Theoretically, using mass-energy conservation, we know that the electron mass increases when they absorb (gravitational) energy.  Then, since there is a change of electron mass, (which happens when the atom is carried from the sun to Earth) there is change (a drift) of quantum levels.  This has been demonstrated using quantum mechanics.   It has been demonstrated that all the quantum levels are a function of the electron mass in the atom.  Therefore the quantum levels are shifted in atoms located (on the sun) inside a deep gravitational potential with respect to the atoms located on Earth.  It has been demonstrated that the spectral lines emitted by these atoms (located on the sun) are redshifted by exactly the same amount as the redshift observed.  This appears in the book:
Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Quantum Mechanics
        After emission of light by those perturbed (more massive) atoms, those photons reach the Earth, but there is no further redshift of these photons when traveling in the gravitational field to us.  If there were another redshift, this would be too much and therefore would not compatible with observations. 
        The absence of any redshift of photons after emission is also required by the principle of mass-energy conservation.  Consequently, light coming from the sun is redshifted (with respect to the frequency observed on Earth), but the redshift is not taking place while the photon is traveling to Earth.  The redshift is due to the fact that the atoms located in a deep gravitational potential have their quantum levels displaced due to the change of electron mass in a deep gravitational potential. 
        Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that atoms emit a different frequency compatible with quantum mechanics, when they are at a different gravitational potential.  Let me recall the experiments of Pound and al. The references are: Pound R. V. and G. A. Rebka,  Phys. Rev. Lett., 4, 337 1964. also Pound R. V. and Snider, J.L. Effect of gravity on Nuclear Resonance, Phys. Rev. B, 140, 788-803, 1965.   Etc.  These observations are also discussed and have also been published several years ago in the book:
Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Quantum Mechanics
        In fact, all this is a simple straightforward application of the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics.  Of course, Einstein could not consider the change of atomic structure in 1905 when he developed relativity theory, because quantum mechanics was completely unknown at his time.   It has also been shown in the same calculation, that that change of electron mass is also responsible for the change of Bohr radius.  It is easy to see that the change of Bohr radius is responsible for the change of clock rate (not time).  Furthermore, in solid-state physics, a change of Bohr radius is responsible for a change of length. 
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        As one might expect, there is an expected disagreement about that explanation, which comes from people who ignore the principles of quantum mechanics.  Nobody (of course) has ever been able to show that this calculation (leading to a drift of the quantum states on the sun) is incorrect.   In fact, this result can be obtained in a simple calculation when we know the principles of quantum mechanics established by Bohr.  Consequently, the observed redshift is due to the change of frequency of the emitting atoms in the gravitational well.  It is not due to a magic energy loss of photons during transmission. 
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        Again, “photons” do not lose energy when traveling in space.  Even a gravitational field does not produce any effect on photons.  This would be contrary to the principle of mass-energy conservation.   There is a change of frequency, which appears as a redshift, which is due to the fact that the atoms are located in a deep gravitational potential.  Photons can lose energy in space ONLY when that space is not completely empty, but contains some residual (stellar or interstellar) gas, which interacts with the traveling light.   That interaction of light with the low concentration of gas in interstellar space has been calculated in previous papers (Ref.  ).  Its agreement with observations is also clearly shown in several papers Ref-1, -  Ref-2, -  Ref-3, -  Ref-4,  -  Ref-5, -  Ref-6.

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Origin of Redshift              December  2002
Keywords: Source of Redshift, Cause of Red shift, Cosmological Red shift, Gravitational Red shift