Series #15 -
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It is observed that spectral lines of light received from a deep
gravitational potential at the surface of a massive star are redshifted
with respect to the corresponding spectral line observed from atoms
located on Earth. This is an observed fact. I certainly
agree with
that. However, it is very odd that physicists are restricting
their
study to a prospective redshift of photons, during the time they travel
through the gravitational field on their way to the Earth.
Strangely,
most physicists are not questioning whether the atoms, located deep
inside the gravitational potential on the sun’s surface, emit the same
spectral lines than when located on Earth. We know that
hydrogen atoms (and all matter) emitted by the Sun, are
indistinguishable from the atoms already existing on Earth, at the
moment they reach us. However, that does not
prove that these atoms were identical at the moment when THEY WERE
LOCATED ON THE SUN. There
are convincing arguments proving that quantum states of atoms (and
molecules) are shifted during the travel between Earth and the Sun
because they absorb gravitational energy. This is calculated
theoretically and observed experimentally.
Theoretically, using mass-energy conservation, we know that the
electron mass increases when they absorb (gravitational) energy.
Then,
since there is a change of electron mass, (which happens when the atom
is carried from the sun to Earth) there is change (a drift) of quantum
levels. This has been
demonstrated using quantum mechanics.
It has been demonstrated that all the quantum levels are a function of
the electron mass in the atom. Therefore the quantum levels are
shifted in atoms located (on the sun) inside a deep gravitational
potential with respect to the atoms located on Earth. It has been
demonstrated that the spectral lines emitted by these atoms (located on
the sun) are redshifted by exactly the same amount as the redshift
observed. This appears in the book: Einstein's Theory of Relativity
versus Quantum Mechanics
After emission of light by those perturbed (more massive) atoms, those
photons reach the Earth, but there is no further redshift of these
photons when traveling in the gravitational field to us. If there
were
another redshift, this would be too much and therefore would not
compatible with observations. The absence of any
redshift of photons after emission is also required by the principle of
mass-energy conservation. Consequently, light coming from the sun
is
redshifted (with respect to the frequency observed on Earth), but the
redshift is not taking place while the photon is traveling to
Earth.
The redshift is due to the fact that the atoms located in a deep
gravitational potential have their quantum levels displaced due to the
change of electron mass in a deep gravitational potential.
Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that atoms emit a different
frequency compatible with quantum mechanics, when they are at a
different gravitational potential. Let me recall the experiments
of
Pound and al. The references are: Pound R. V. and G. A. Rebka,
Phys.
Rev. Lett., 4, 337 1964. also Pound R. V. and Snider, J.L. Effect of
gravity on Nuclear Resonance, Phys. Rev. B, 140, 788-803,
1965. Etc.
These observations are also discussed and have also been published
several years ago in the book: Einstein's Theory of Relativity
versus Quantum Mechanics
In fact, all this is a simple straightforward application of the
fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. Of course, Einstein
could
not consider the change of atomic structure in 1905 when he developed
relativity theory, because quantum mechanics was completely unknown at
his time. It has also been shown in the same calculation,
that that
change of electron mass is also responsible for the change of Bohr
radius. It is easy to see that the change of Bohr radius is
responsible for the change of clock rate (not time). Furthermore,
in
solid-state physics, a change of Bohr radius is responsible for a
change of length. - As one might expect,
there is an expected disagreement about that explanation, which comes
from people who ignore the principles of quantum mechanics.
Nobody (of
course) has ever been able to show that this calculation (leading to a
drift of the quantum states on the sun) is incorrect. In
fact, this
result can be obtained in a simple calculation when we know the
principles of quantum mechanics established by Bohr.
Consequently, the
observed redshift is due to the change of frequency of the emitting
atoms in the gravitational well. It is not due to a magic energy
loss
of photons during transmission. - Again,
“photons” do not lose energy when traveling in space. Even a
gravitational field does not produce any effect on photons. This
would
be contrary to the principle of mass-energy conservation.
There is a
change of frequency, which appears as a redshift, which is due to the
fact that the atoms are located in a deep gravitational
potential.
Photons can lose energy in space ONLY when that space is not completely
empty, but contains some residual (stellar or interstellar) gas, which
interacts with the traveling light. That interaction of
light with
the low concentration of gas in interstellar space has been calculated in previous papers(Ref. ). Its agreement
with observations is also clearly shown in several papers Ref-1, - Ref-2, - Ref-3, - Ref-4, - Ref-5, - Ref-6.