Non-Doppler Redshift of Some Galactic Objects.

Paul Marmet (1932-2005)

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Redshift observations reported in several galactic objects like binary stars, stars clusters, and in the K effect are compared with the predicted non-Doppler redshift caused by the inelastic transmission of photons in gases.  It is found that all the observations are compatible with the predicted redshift caused by a gas surrounding the star.  The new mechanism explains in a simple way and without the requirement of any of the previous ad hoc hypotheses why so many early-type stars in the solar neighborhood appear to be generally redshifted.  This mechanism has important consequences in cosmology.

I. Introduction.
          Many astronomical observations of shifts of spectral lines cannot be explained by means of the ordinary Doppler interpretation [1].  As an example, Reboul [1] reports a list of 780-refereed publications on "untrivial redshifts." Relativity can explain some observations, but a large number still remain unexplained.
          It has been known for many years [2], [3] that quantum electrodynamics has shown that photon-atom collisions are always inelastic.  In that case, the exact energy loss could not be calculated because no mathematical solution of the S matrix [2], [3] is known.  Since the exact amount of energy lost during photon-atom collisions was still unknown, a semi-classical solution has been calculated [4].
          Fundamental physics teaches that under the passage of electromagnetic radiation through gases, the atoms of a gas are polarized.  Therefore some energy of polarization is transferred from the electromagnetic wave to the atom. 
          Consequently, the momentum of the wave is then also transferred from the electromagnetic wave to the atom.  The direction of that momentum is the direction of propagation of the wave.  The momentum transferred to the atom will then be in the direction of propagation of the wave.  When a wave is interacting with an atom, the momentum is transferred to the electrical charges of that atom and the charges are therefore accelerated.  According to electrodynamics, accelerated charges emit radiation (bremsstrahlung). The amount of radiation emitted by bremsstrahlung can be calculated by Maxwell's equation. 
          It has been shown [5] that the number of photon-atom collisions is surprisingly large when light is transmitted through gases.  It is also an everyday experience [5] that those collisions represent a quasi-perfect forward scattering.  Calculations show [4] that the amount of energy lost per collision depends on the length of coherence of the radiation.  In the case of blackbody radiation, (Planck spectrum), the length of coherence is related [4] to the temperature of the emitter. 
          These calculations have been applied to the case of the redshift on the solar limb [5].  It has been observed continuously for more than 80 years that an unexplained redshift appears [5] on the solar limb.  On the other hand, the solar disk shows fairly constant wavelengths of spectral lines near the center of the solar disk.  Since the solar temperature and the amount of hydrogen in the solar chromosphere are well known, one has calculated, according to the new redshift theory [4], how the redshift should vary across the solar disk.  It has been found that the non-Doppler redshift predicted [5] agrees in shape and in amplitude with observations and without having to use any adjustable parameter.
          The aim of this paper is to consider further examples of unexplained redshifts like the ones reported in early-type stars in binary systems, in stars clusters, and in the K effect. 

II. Case of Binary Stars
          The individual spectrum of each component of many binary stars has been observed.  A variation of wavelengths of each component of the binary system as a function of time is reported.  That time-dependent variation is a Doppler effect due to the velocity of rotation of the two bodies around their center of mass.  Typical well-known examples of this oscillatory variation of spectral lines due to the radial velocity are shown in Fig. 1 and 2.  One can see the observed redshift of each star at different phases of rotation.  The inverted phase observed between each spectral component easily proves the binary-nature of the system.  Many other examples are known. 
          However, a problem arises because it is observed that the average radial velocity (as calculated by the redshift) of the center of mass of each component of the system is not the same for each of the two components.  Celestrial mechanics predicts that when two bodies rotate around the center of mass, the average (velocity of the center of mass) radial velocity component of either star with respect to us must be the same.  In many cases, as seen in Table I and Figs. 1 and 2, this is contrary to observation, mainly in the case of Wolf-Rayet stars. 

Figure 1
Redshift in Km/s of each component of the Binary HD193567 versus the phase of rotation.
           One notices that all those binaries have one component with a much higher temperature that the other one.  The variation of redshift observed between the two components has been studied by a number of authors [6]-[14].  It has been tested in order to see if it could be a relativistic effect. It was calculated [10] that the relativistic contribution of the redshift was negligible, being about ten times smaller that that of the observed value.  Wilson [7] concluded: "Whatever the origin of the shift may be, it is probably to be sought in the process occurring within the (star) atmosphere itself."

Figure 2
Redshift in Km/s of each component of the binary star HD94546 versus the phase of rotation
          More recently, one has tried to eliminate the velocity difference DV by reexamining the original data, but it was found, as stated by Cawley and Hutchings [14]: "It is clear from many published investigations that such efforts (velocity differences) are present."
Spectral Type
 * see Fig. 1
 ** see Fig. 2
Table 1
Difference of Velocities Between
the Centers of Mass of Binary Components of Some Systems

III. Discussion of Binary Stars
          A Doppler interpretation of this redshift leads to the suggestion that while the two stars rotate around each other, the hot component moves away from us with respect to the other one.  This interpretation is on course impossible.  It has also been recognized that relativity does not solve the problem. 
          However, it has been demonstrated [4] that the electromagnetic interaction on atoms is inelastic and leads to a non-Doppler redshift.  In this case, the energy loss is a function of the length of coherence of the transmitted radiation.  Since the length of coherence of the radiation is inversely proportional to the temperature of the emitter [4, eq. (12)], one can calculate that hotter stars emit radiation having a shorter length of coherence than cooler ones.  This leads to a larger redshift when the radiation originates from a hotter surface.  It is quite remarkable to notice from observations that all binary stars showing a measurable difference of redshift between the two components are Wolf-Rayet binaries or hot stars.  This agrees with the predicted [4] non-Doppler redshift and confirms that the difference of redshift between the components is not a Doppler effect. 
          Several scientists seem to feel obliged to interpret the larger redshift of one component of one binary system in term of a velocity effect.  In that case, they claim that the redshift is caused by the mass falling from one star to the other.  Since the system is rotating, such a hypothesis should also produce as well a blue shift when the system is aligned the other way around, and the mass is flowing in the opposite direction.  Although one expects that blue shifts should be observed in about half the observations, no blue shift has ever been reported, and strange mechanisms have to be imagined to explain their behavior.  Furthermore, why do we observe mass motion between binary components only in the case of very hot components?  The non-Doppler interpretation [4] only, can predict that in binaries, only a redshift (and no blue shift) exists, and that redshift appears only on the hottest star component. 

IV. The K-Effect
          Radial velocities of 2148 stars close to the sun have been analyzed by Cambell and Moore [15] and Smart and Green [16].  In 1953, Torondjadze [17] observed that the dynamic properties of the later-type stars are different from those of the young stars.  The early type stars have their own large positive recessing velocity (K-term) as if they originated from a location near the Sun and formed an expanding association arranged along the spiral arm of the Milky Way.  This K-term has been confirmed by Smart [18].  In an analysis by Trumpler and Weaver [19], they write: "There can be no doubts, at present, that systematic errors in the wavelength of spectral lines used in the measurement of the radial velocities or that any currents in the stellar atmosphere (as suggested by some early investigators) are completely insufficient to explain the large K-term of the B stars." Results are summarized by Allen [20].  These tables give, for each type of star, the "apparent velocity of recession (redshift) in all directions" for stars in the solar neighborhood.  These velocities (Table II) are plotted on Fig. 3.  Temperatures also come from Allen [20].

Temp. (Degrees K)
Table II
Apparent Velocity of Recession in Km/s in all Directions in the
Solar Neighborhood for Different Classes of Stars

           The apparent recession of early-type stars in the solar neighborhood appears suspicious if one gives them a Doppler interpretation, as we study in the next section.  However, the temperature dependence (Fig. 3) shows the compatibility with the non-Doppler interpretation [4]. Other effects like the variation of the amount of gas around various stars and other phenomena will be discussed in more detail in a later paper. 

Figure 3
Apparent velocity of recession in all directions for stars in the solar
neighborhood as a function of the temperature of the star.

V. The Gould Belt
         Some authors have provided evidence that those hot stars are located on an apparently expanding ring of gas around the Sun [21]-[24] which forms the Gould belt.  The Gould belt is an apparently expanding ring of stars making an angle of 17o with the galactic plane.  It was also verified that the observed redshift of these stars is much too large to be compatible with the calculated relativistic redshift. 
          Olano [25] and Lindblad et al. [26] have considered a model of a local gas ring related to the Gould belt.  Lindblad [27] believes that not only stars, but also the local gas, form an elliptical expanding ring roughly coincident with the Gould belt.  He considers that the expanding ring of gas of the Gould belt is decelerated by the dragging action of the surrounding galactic gas.  It is assumed that the gaseous galactic disk has a constant thickness and density of gas.  The gas of the Gould belt is arbitrarily assumed to have the shape of an expanding "tube" of gas and that the Sun is located [27] "in the vacuum enclosed by the tube."  Surprisingly, the height of the tube is considered to remain constant during the expansion (two-dimensional expansion) and is always centered and perpendicular to the galactic plane.  It is assumed that this gas motion acts as a "snowplow model" and sweeps the galactic gas in its path. 
          One must remember that this model has been obtained by fitting by computer the many parameters (initial conditions) of the function describing the oval ring, which is looked for, as it was observed experimentally.  Therefore it is no surprise to find that these stellar associations (I Ori, II Per, I Lac) could be fitted on one ring.  It is therefore less surprising to find that in the Olano [25] model, the center of the expansion is in a Per at almost 200 pc from the Sun, whereas the center of the expanding system measured and plotted by others [28], [29] is very much closer (@50 pc) to the Sun.  Consequently, as stated by Stothers and Frogel [29]: "Unfortunately, the location of the Sun with respect to the neutral hydrogen in the Gould belt seems to be virtually indeterminate." 
          The Olano model [25] brings also serious difficulties in the amount of energy needed to produce such a huge expansion involving all the Gould-belt mass.  The energy required to produce the initial expansion is calculated to be almost 1052 ergs. This is another order of magnitude larger that the energy of the most energetic (Type I) supernova [20].  Another serious difficulty is that the Olano model requires that the expanding gas would move along a two-dimensional (and not specifically as one would expect) hollow cylinder having a height of 200 pc.  Since an expansion implies a beginning, it implies some sort of explosion.  How can an explosion expand as a ring and not as a sphere? Our solar system is inside this ring and we are located near the center where started an explosion more powerful that Class I supernova, which apparently left no trace behind.  The Olano model does not take into account the inclination of the Gould belt with the galactic plane, which has been observed to be about 17o, as mentioned by Gould [30]
          Tsioumis and Fricke [31] and Olano [25], while trying to fit data with the theoretical model, state that observation: "could be interpreted as if there were more than one expanding subsystem. " Also, Olano [25] reports: ". . . the existence of two systems of different ages, one young and the other old, could explain this difference."  It seems then, that another expansion; more or less similar to the last one took place previously.  One might then also wonder why the "snowplow" effect did not seem to work the first time, since the second more recent "snowplow" could find so much gas left behind.  How can so much interstellar gas be produced between the two expansions?

Consequences of this Ring-Expanding Model.
          The reality of the expansion of the Gould belt suffers from at least four serious difficulties:
          1) There is no way to explain that an explosion (of neutral gas) could expand only in two dimensions as a ring, instead of a sphere.
          2) The energy of the explosion mentioned above has been calculated to be larger that the one due to Class I supernova (1052 ergs) which is an extremely rare event.  No trace of such an explosion is found in the solar system neighborhood, where this explosion took place. 
          3) Although the expanding ring of gas is claimed to react with the galactic gas, it does not expand in the same plane.  There is an angle of 17o between the planes, which has been neglected. 
          4) In order to make the observations compatible with the expanding system, it is necessary to consider at least two expansions.  Therefore it is natural to believe that the stars coming from the older expansion are now older and that they should also expand and show a K effect as later-type stars.  This is contrary to observations, since the K effect is observed only in the early-type stars (see Fig. 3).

VI. Redshift of Hot Stars in the Orion Nebula
          It has been known for many years [32]-[34] that O and B stars in the Orion Nebula show a pronounced redshift relative to the lines in the spectrum in the nebula itself.  Findlay-Freundlich [10] states: "The B stars in the Orion Nebula group show a systematic redshift relative to the lines of the nebula, amounting to at least + 10 Km/s." This can be interpreted as if these stars were receding with respect to the Nebula. 
          Several hypotheses have been suggested, but the Doppler interpretation leads to the belief that the stars illuminating the gas are moving away with respect to the Orion Nebula.  For example, Pankonin et al. [35] suggested a model where the ultraviolet radiation emitted from the star q1Ori C, located on the boundary and on our side of an assumed neutral gas, would create a "cup-shaped" cavity of ionized gas.  This "cup-shaped" plasma would apparently be directed in such a way as to act as a (parabolic) reflector with specular properties, reflecting the ions in our direction.  Therefore the star located at a position near the focus of the reflector would have its ions reflected (by the inside of the cup) toward us in the solar system.  Then the reflected gas would have a velocity toward us, and this would explain how the stars in Orion run away from us with respect to the nebula. 
          The description of the reflection of the ions inside the cup cavity is like the one used to describe the reflection of light on a parabolic mirror.  That author does not explain how the ions entering the boundary of a plasma, receive a specular reflection as on a mirror, and produce a collimated beam of gas.  He does not explain how a plasma can produce specular reflection.  It seems that the ions should diffuse in all directions through the cup-shaped plasma, or even be trapped into the plasma.  On the other hand, one can calculate that the redshift observed in the O and B stars in the Orion Nebula is clearly compatible with the redshift produced by the atmosphere of such stars.  We believe that the redshift of these O and B stars is caused by this non-Doppler redshift [4].

VII. Redshift of Hot Stars with Respect to Clusters
          More recently, Olano and Pöppel [25], [36] also recognized that the velocity of early-type stars is larger than that of the surrounding gas.  It is even larger than the velocity of the surrounding stars.  The receding velocity of O stars relative to the average star velocity in the same cluster was first observed by Trumpler [37].  Similar results were also presented by Findlay Freundlich [10].  Table III provides a list of some star clusters, and the last column indicates the average redshift of the O stars with respect to the cluster after correcting for the redshift of comparison stars.

Star Cluster
Table III
Apparent Recession Velocity of O Stars with Respect
to their Respective Clusters.

          Trumpler [37] states: "It is rather striking that this (redshift) always comes out positive . . . " He wanted to use this redshift to determine the mass of O stars, but it was discovered later that most of this redshift could not have a relativistic origin.  The general redshift of "run-away stars" observed in [38] can only be explained by the non-Doppler interpretation [4], since the redshift increases as a function of the temperature of the star. 

VIII. Conclusion
           We saw that the Doppler interpretation of the redshifts of the hot stars belonging to binaries, to star clusters surrounding a nebula, or to the hot stars of a cluster, require many ad hoc hypotheses in order to explain only partially some observations.  Even with all these hypotheses, we have seen that many observations disagree with the predictions deduced from the model.  Many serious questions remain unsolved without our theory.  For example, why don't we see a blue shift from binary stars, since half the time the mass exchange between stars is such that the mass is approaching us?  In the case of the Gould belt, how can an expansion take place only in two dimensions?  Why don't we observe the K effect coming from either of the double expansions that would make the Olano model compatible with observations?  Why is the redshift of early-type stars in clusters always positive?  How can the solar limb [5] be redshifted? 
          Why do we observe generally, that all hot stars centered on our Sun, inside our galaxy, seem to be redshifted, while the Hubble expansion is not expected to be applicable?  In that case, observations lead us to believe that we are at the center of the universe, as was believed in ancient times.  Many questions remain unanswered when we neglect to apply the non-elastic interaction of photons with atoms [14].  Current explanations rely on a number of ad hoc hypotheses.  On the other hand, one single electrodynamical theory, compatible with quantum electrodynamics, explains all the many observations described above, and furthermore explains the redshift on the solar limb [5].  We must conclude that the redshift of most of the early-type stars mentioned above cannot be a Doppler redshift: It is due to inelastic photon-atom interaction [4]

          The author acknowledges the collaboration of Dr. R Gosselin for commenting on the manuscript, and also E. Cauchon and P. Lavergne for bibliographical and drawing works. 

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This above paper gives updated information about
a previous corresponding analysis in:
IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science Vol., 18 No: 1 February 1990, Pages 56-60

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