# Frequently Asked Questions

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Generalization of Mass-Energy Conservation.

Series #3

( Last checked 2017/01/15 - The estate of Paul Marmet )
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Question - (3-A)
In order to predict all the phenomena usually attributed to relativity, can we just take into account the change of mass (due to kinetic and all other energies) and use Newton's equations (without any new physics)?
A. - Yes, this is quite correct. However, we must take a "full account" of all the transformations between masses and energy, both directly and indirectly. This might not be as obvious as expected at first sight, because this principle must be equally applied inside atoms. The principle of mass-energy conservation must be applied quite generally, in all cases, even inside atoms and nuclei.
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Question - (3-B)
Since both the electron mass and the proton mass increase in the same proportion, does this compensate so that the atomic energy levels remain the same?
A. - No, this same relative change of mass does not lead to any compensation. Since the effective mass value that must be taken in the calculations for the proton and the electron leads to "reduced masses", the energy levels almost change solely due to the change of electron mass. The change of proton mass gives a negligible correction (about 2000 times smaller than for the electron). Being negligible compared with the effect due to the change of electron mass, this variation of the proton mass is neglected.  The variation of electron mass is taken into account in chapters three and also eleven  of the Book: "Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics".
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Question - (3-C)
Apart of the fact that there is a change of electron mass inside atoms, is there any other important changes in atoms which have consequences when we apply Newton's classical mechanics?
A. - Yes, it is well known that there are two important consequences which changes the Newtonian parameters. They are:
1- A change of electron mass leads to a change of size of the Bohr radius. Consequently, the size of the atoms is different. Therefore the size of matter (e.g. length) is different. Any physical material (standard rods, size of human bodies, etc. . . .) will occupy a different volume (different lengths) in space.
2- A change of electron mass changes the energy of the quantum states of atoms. That change of quantum levels changes the frequencies of the energy (light) emitted during these transitions. Therefore atomic clocks will run at a different rate (following a change of electron mass).
These phenomena are demonstrated in detail in the book: Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics.
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Question - (3-D)
Does the change of size of matter and the change of clock rate described above imply new physics and new hypotheses, or is it just the same physics previously known for almost a century?
A. The change of size of the Bohr radius and the change of frequency of radiation emitted during transitions is in perfect agreement with De Broglie equation, which is the realistic basis of quantum mechanics. This physical phenomenon was known in 1914. (Ref. Sagnac M. G., J. de Phys., 1914, 4, 177-195). It is also in perfect agreement with all modern quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics calculations developed in the twenties (Schroedinger equation). De Broglie's equation and all modern calculations are in perfect agreement with all existing experimental data, which imply a change of atom size, as a function of a change of electron mass. No one can argue against the change of size of matter (rods) and the change of clock rate as a consequence of the change of electron mass (due to mass-energy conservation). This would be contrary to the calculation of quantum mechanics which have always led to correct predictions.
Let me point out that the mathematics of quantum mechanics leads to correct predictions even if its physical interpretation is absurd. Consequently, the change of length of matter does not imply any new physics. It is just an application of de Broglie equation (or the application of the mathematics of quantum mechanics, if you prefer) and the principle of mass-energy conservation. All the physical observations can now be described physically without any of Einstein's arbitrary hypotheses.
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Question - (3-F)
What is the consequence of such a "change of size of atoms" and a "change of clock rate" in Newtonian physics (due to the change of electron mass)?
A. - In Newton Mechanics, calculations require the knowledge of length. This length is defined as the number of times the (proper) local standard unit of length is counted in the length to be measured. Furthermore, Newton's mechanics also uses clocks. In order to determine what is called: The (proper) Newtonian Time Interval, the observer must refer to the "Clock Display" generated by the local clock, (which depends on the change of electron mass).
Consequently, when a moving observer measures the "proper length" and the "proper value" on the local clock, these readings are dependent on the change of electron mass (therefore on the observer's velocity and its potential energy). Therefore any observer measuring the proper length and the proper display on the moving frame must take into account the corrections due to the change of electron mass.
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Question - (3-G)
Does this means that, when we take into account the change of mass (see above, question 3-F), we must also necessarily always take into account, the corresponding change of length and also the corresponding change of clock rate?
A. - Yes. This is absolutely necessary. We must be coherent.
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Question - (3-H)
Are there any other phenomena that must still be added to these above corrections?
A. - As long as you take into account mass-energy conservation everywhere, you can be sure to get the correct answer. This includes mass-energy conservation plus secondary consequences due to mass-energy conservation (which are a change of length and a change of clock rate). Even in the case of macroscopic physics, you simply have to apply Newton's laws of physics, using proper values, as observed by an observer which is assumed to be located where the phenomenon takes place.
If you wish to consider atomic and molecular energies inside atoms and even nuclear energies in the nucleus, we must also consider the relevant electric, magnetic and nuclear energies.
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generalization.html           Series 3            Generalization of Mass-Energy Conservation.              Updated Sept.  1999