Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics

by Paul Marmet (1932-2005)

( Last checked 2018/01/16 - The estate of Paul Marmet )
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Table of Contents
Preface and Copyright

Chapter One The Physical Reality of Length Contraction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Mass-Energy Conservation at a Macroscopic Scale
1.3 Mass-Energy Conservation at a Microscopic Scale
1.4 Mass Loss of the Electron
1.5 Change of the Radius of the Electron Orbit
1.6 Change of Energy of Electronic States
1.7 Experimental Measurements of Length Dilation in a Gravitational Potential
1.7.1 Pound and Rebkaís Experiment
1.7.2 The Solar Red Shift
1.8 The Crucial Influence of the Electron Mass on the Fundamental Laws of Relativity
1.9 References
1.10 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Two Transformation of Excitation Energy between Frames
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Difference between Time and What Clocks Display
2.3 Description of the Reference Time Rate
2.4 Description of the Reference Meter
2.5 Definition of the Velocity of Light
2.6 Need of Parameters with a Double Index
2.7 Apparent Lack of Compatibility for Fast Moving Particles
2.8 Demonstration of the Energy Relationship between Systems
2.9 Relative Frequencies between Systems
2.10 Cases of Relevance of the Relationship hv = ghs
2.11 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Three Demonstration of the Lorentz Equations without Einstein's Relativity Principles
3.1 Fundamental Physical Principle
3.2 Change of Energy and Bohr Radius Due to Kinetic Energy
3.3 The Lorentz Equation for Time
3.4 Length Dilation Due to Kinetic Energy
3.5 The Lorentz Transformation for Lengths
3.5.1 Apparent and Absolute Time
3.5.2 Relationship between Velocities V and V'
3.5.3 Relative Velocities within Systems
3.5.4 Lorentz's Second Relationship
3.6 Constant Velocity of Light within Any Frame of Reference
3.7 Non-Reality of Space Dilation, Contraction or Distortion
3.8 Transformation of Units in Different Frames
3.9 Failure of the Reciprocity Principle
3.10 References
3.11 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Four Fundamental Nature of the Mechanism Responsible for the Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury
4.1 Definition of the Absolute Standard Units [o.s.]
4.2 The Absolute Reference Meter
4.3 The Absolute Reference Second
4.3.1 Example
4.3.2 Relative Clock Displays between Frames
4.4 The Absolute Reference Kilogram
4.5 Space and Time Corollaries within the Action-Reaction Principle
4.6 Fundamental Mechanism Taking Place in Planetary Orbits
4.6.1 Significance of Units in an Equation
4.7 Transformations of Units
4.7.1 aM(o.s.) versus aM(M)
4.7.2 M(S)(o.s.) and M(M)M(o.s.) versus M(S)(M) and M(M)M(M)
4.7.3 PM(o.s.) versus PM(M)
4.7.4 G(o.s.) versus G(M)
4.7.5 F(o.s.) versus F(M)
4.8 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Five Calculation of the Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury
5.1 Mathematical Transformation of Units between Frames
5.1.1 Consequence of a Simple Change of Units
5.2 Physical Transformations Due to Mass-Energy Conservation
5.3 Incoherence between Outer Space and Mercury Predictions Using Newton's Physics
5.4 Incoherence of the Gravitational Force Using Newton's Physics
5.5 Relevant Physical Parameters
5.6 Fundamental Phenomena Responsible for the Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury
5.7 Change of Length from Outer Space to Mercury Location
5.8 Change of Clock Rate from Outer Space to Mercury Location
5.9 Total Interaction Due to the Physical Changes of Length and Clock Rate
5.10 Correction for an Elliptical Orbit
5.11 Mathematical Identity with Einsteinís Equation
5.12 References
5.13 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Six Geometrical Illustration of the Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury
6.1 Conditions Controlling the Geometrical Shape of an Orbit
6.2 The Change of Mass of Mercury
6.3 Orbital Shapes and Gravitational Force Gradients
6.4 Identity of Mathematical Forms
6.5 Illustration of Trajectories in Potential Wells
6.6 Validity of the Classical Model
6.7 References
6.8 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Seven The Lorentz Transformations in Three Dimensions
7.1 Basic Principles of a Transformation
7.2 The Lorentz Transformations
7.3 The Equations
7.4 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Eight The Doppler Effect
8.1 Fundamental Principles of the Doppler Effect
8.2 Mass-Energy Conservation in the Context of the Doppler Effect
8.3 The Doppler Effect without Using Waves
8.4 References
8.5 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Nine Simultaneity and Absolute Velocity of Light
9.1 Simultaneity versus Identical Clock Displays
9.2 Thought Experiment on Clocks Synchronization
9.3 Synchronization of Clocks A and B
9.3.1 Method #1
9.3.2 Method #2
9.4 Loss of Synchronization of Clock aon the Moving Frame
9.5 Synchronization between Moving Clocks a and b (Method #1)
9.6 Asymmetric Relative Velocity of Light
9.7 Synchronization of Clocks a and b (Method #2)
9.8 References
9.9 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Ten The Principle of Equivalence
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Deflection of Light in an Elevator Moving at Constant Velocity
10.3 Inertial versus Gravitational Acceleration of Masses
10.4 Bremsstrahlung Due to Inertial and Gravitational Accelerations
10.5 Behavior of Light
10.5.1 Light Path in an Accelerated Elevator
10.5.2 Light Path in a Gravitational Field
10.5.3 The Equivalence Principle and Light Deflection
10.6 Gravitational Lenses
10.7 Attracting Force between Parallel Beams of Charged Particles
10.8 References

Chapter Eleven Internal Phenomena inside Atoms
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Transformations inside Fast Moving Atoms
11.3 Electric Potentials
11.4 Sommerfeld Fine Structure
11.5 Atomic Structure inside Free Falling Atoms
11.6 High Potentials and Higher Order Terms
11.7 References
11.8 Symbols and Variables

Chapter Twelve On the Formation of Pseudo Black Holes
12.1 Formation of a Protostar
12.2 Mass-Energy Conservation in a Cluster of Atoms
12.3 Mass of a Star versus the Amount of Matter Used for Its Formation
12.4 Mass of a Star versus Its Radius
12.5 Maximum Mass of a Star versus Its Radius
12.6 Complete Transformation of Mass into Energy
12.7 Proper Values in Extreme Gravitational Potentials
12.8 Beyond the Extreme Gravitational Potential
12.9 Formation of Matter in a Deep Gravitational Potential versus the Formation of Matter and Anti-Matter
12.9.1 Inverse Gravitational Mechanism
12.10 References

Appendix I The Dependence of the Size of Matter on Electron Mass

Appendix II The Deflection of Light by the Sun's Gravitational Field: An Analysis of the 1919 Solar Eclipse Expeditions

          Note: This Appendix II has been published in a more complete form more recently.
          Please, refer to the paper:

         Relativistic Deflection of Light Near the Sun Using Radio Signals and Visible Light

Appendix III Physical Constants


Preface    Chapter 1

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