Dimensions of Einstein's
Series #16 - Space
Question - (1-A)
Is Time a "Physical"
No. In a description of the physical nature of matter, everything
in physics can be described in a space having a width, a depth,
height. Nothing more is necessary. Of course, such a description
different later. A new three-dimensional description might be
after a given time interval. That description can also vary as a
function of temperature and various other parameters. It exists
a mathematical equation being able to transform "one second"
"meters" (or vice versa) (called space-time transformation).
Mathematics is a tool to predict numerical parameters.
not give a physical description of phenomena. Mathematics is not
physics. Just try to explain to a friend how to proceed to make
physical transformation of a "space" into "time"
(space-time transformation). Mathematically it is easy. You
write "Space" = "Time". Physically, it is non-sense. It is not
you can write a mathematical formula relating numbers of units
physical reality exists. A mathematical relationship
between numbers is NOT a physical process. A mathematical
between numbers is not the "Cause" of any phenomenon. It is a
giving predictions. Do not confuse a tool making predictions
(mathematics) with the physical mechanism itself.
Question - (1-B)
How many physical
dimensions are necessary to give a complete description of
in the universe?
Question - (1-C)
In physics, we saw that
important condition requires using Proper Values. What is
of Proper Values?
from one frame to another, the Proper
Value of Time is the number of units
of time (using local clock) the local standard unit (of time) is
by this local observer to measure the local time. In the case of
length, the Proper Value of length is the number of times the
Standard Meter must be used to represent the length measured.
is explained in the book: "Einstein's
of Relativity versus
Classical Mechanics." In the paper: "A
Classical Description of the
Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury",
we see that using proper values with Newton's physics, we find
correct value of the advance of the perihelion of Mercury
need of Einstein's principles of relativity.
(of units) measured at the
location where the physical interaction takes place. Inside
proper value is therefore the number of units which exists at
particular location where the element of the particle is
Question - (1-D)
does the local observer (in a moving frame) not use the same
standard meter (and standard clock) as defined everywhere
of his local meter and local clock)?
do it. The only standard meter (or standard
clock) available to him in his local frame is necessarily
from the one in the initial frame because it has been moved
(accelerated). In order to make a measurement, the observer must
the universal meter (and the universal standard clock) from the
original frame to his local frame. When he does this moving, the
universal standard meter (and the universal standard clock)
velocity when carried from the universal frame to the local
Therefore ENERGY is given to the atoms (and electrons) of his
standard meter (and universal clock). This change of energy
the atoms of his standard meter (during the change of frame)
the Bohr radius of the atoms, which changes the real physical
the universal standard meter (and the rate of the standard
Therefore, when the local observer makes a measurement, the
and the local clock are different from what it was before the
This is what we take into account in our book (Einstein's Theory of Relativity
There are neither space contraction nor time dilation, however
units of time and length on the moving frame are necessarily
as explained above.An important application of this principle is
in the paper: "A Detailed
Description of the Advance of the Perihelion of Mercury".
Question - (1-E)
local units, will an observer measuring the Proper Values of
height, find a different value, after moving to another
of units. Of course, his own height has changed. However, the
units are the same because the length to be measured (the moving
observer) has moved as well as the meter used for the
moving to a different frame, the standard meter changes by the
amount as the height of the human body, since they both (the
the standard meter) are submitted to the same change of velocity
the same change of gravitational potential. The Bohr radius
the same ratio for both the observer and the standard meter.
Question - (1-F)
we move from Earth to the orbit of Mercury (always
neglecting the mass
of Mercury), will we find that the number of units giving
the size (of
an external body) of the Sun (using Mercury proper values)
is the same
as measured from Earth (using Earth proper values)?
of the meter carried out with the
observer from Earth to Mercury's orbit, does change. Of course,
actual size of the Sun does not change because an observer moved
Earth's orbit to Mercury's orbit.
Question - (1-G)
read in many books that Newton's physics does not lead to
"Relativistic Corrections". What is wrong about Newton's
mass-energy conservation has not
been fully applied in the past when using Newton's physics. This
explained in more details in "chapter one" of the
Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics".
Here is an example. Let us
kinetic energy "Ek" to a mass having an initial mass Mo. The initial mass Mo becomes slightly
to that increase of kinetic energy (which possesses mass). From
relationship Ek=Mkc2, the mass increase is: Mk=Ek/c2.
Mf is then:
+ Mk =
It is that small increase of
which has been neglected in the past and which renders Newton's
compatible with all observations without using Einstein's
Question - (1-H)
we now take into account the increase of mass due to kinetic
can we then use Newton's equations to predict all
Potential energy, which is
energy, must also be taken into account. For example, when we
(potential) energy to raise a mass against the gravitational
we also have given energy to that mass. This is explained in
one of the book Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical
Mechanics, chapter one.
Due to potential energy Ep, there is an increase
Mp = Ep/c2
The final mass including
Energy" Mk and
"Potential Energy" Mp is then:
Mf = Mo+
Ek/c2 + Ep/c2
Question - (1-I)
there any other kind of energy (other than kinetic and
potential) that also contributes to increase the mass of
contribute to an increase of mass. The
principle of mass-energy conservation is "always" valid. No
ever. We can have gravitational energy, kinetic energy,
energy, magnetic energy, nuclear energy, and any other form of
In fact, after considering gravitational energy and kinetic
electrostatic energy has also been considered in chapters three
eleven of the Book: "Einstein's
of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics"
when calculating the change of Bohr radius and clock rates.
some problems, the change of other energies (electrostatic,
nuclear, etc.) is not always directly relevant, so that we can
more easily many problems considering only kinetic and
energies. However, one must keep in mind that, not using all
energy is an approximation, which is not necessarily valid.
must also understand that this change of mass must be carefully
into account everywhere in physics. This strict application of
mass-energy conservation will solve the problems usually
relativity even when applied to atomic, molecular, and nuclear
particle physics. There is an interesting challenge to apply
physical and logical solution of strict mass-energy conservation
problem of internal structure of matter.
Question - (1-J)
We know that Einstein's
definition of time is what clocks are showing. Do we use the
definition of time? If not, why not?
to the change of electron mass, the rate
shown by clocks changes when they are carried to another frame
different energy. It is not acceptable to believe, as Einstein,
time runs faster just because clocks run at a faster rate. The
rate depends on a physical mechanism and "Time" does not change
the clock rate is different. In our work, the change of clock
taken into account and is considered to be due to the change of
electron mass (which changes its motion rate). For practical
inside a moving frame, the "clock rate" can be called: "Local
"Apparent time". However, it is not real "Time" at all. It just
"clock rate". Then we see that the variables "t" or "T" do not
represent time. These variables represent "local clock rates".
"Time" is an arbitrary defined reference rate, which is defined
particular "clock rate" of a clock in which the physical
have been carefully defined. All clocks rates, in any frame, can
compared with this absolute standard. These main physical
requested are its gravitational potential and its absolute
The absolute definition of that standard is given in the Book: Einstein's Theory of Relativity
Question - (1-K)
this work, within any individual frame, using proper values,
substitute the "clock rate" instead of the variable, which
previously called time "t". What physical phenomena lead us
to do that?
direct reasons that led us to consider that
Newton's laws of physics are not really directly related with
but evolves only as a function of local "clock rate".
they did not know that the clock rate
was changing when energy was given to atoms and electrons inside
matter. However, Einstein used the "clock rate" even if he did
specify it directly, since he was using a "time" that he defined
being the local clock rate. The information about the change of
rate requires a level of knowledge of atomic structure of matter
did not exist in 1905. The crucial information needed came from
Broglie discovery on the wavelength of matter-waves.
without the relevant knowledge of atomic structure, there was no
alternative available, and the only variable available at that
century, more precise experiments with
light, have shown that physical laws were invariant within any
reference. However, without knowing that clock rates were
to mass-energy conservation, it was assumed that time itself was
changing. At that time, there was then no possibility to see
"Time" was not the correct concept represented by "t" in
mechanics. Einstein had to make new hypotheses while the same
correction (of clock rate) can be obtained without any
de Broglie description on the wavelength of particles. Einstein
have the correct tools (e.g. wavelength of matter) at his time
the realistic solution to that problem. It appears unsuitable
Einstein defined "Time" as the observed "clock rate".
with energy, it is
abnormal to believe that real "time" is changing just because
are changing their rate. Something must be wrong. It is more
assume that the clock rate is changing because the phenomenon
responsible for the change of clock rate, is the same as the one
changes the interaction between particles and bodies.
More explanations are given in
book: Einstein Theory of
versus Classical Mechanics.
Question - (1-L) (IMPORTANT)
an observer moves to a different frame, we have seen that
the number of
proper units is different. Therefore, the physics seems to
be the same
but expressed with different numbers. How can results of
equations REALLY BE PHYSICALLY DIFFERENT because of these
transformations of units! Give a typical example to
illustrate that the
local observer will get a different realistic physical
he uses the same Newton's physics all the time?
simple transformation of physical quantities
from one system to another, followed by the inverse
leads to the same original parameters and exactly the same
Absolutely no physics is involved in the simple transformation
units. This is just a mathematical transformation of physical
quantities. This can be illustrated in some examples. For
us transform all the parameters (from a rest frame), to the
values of a body moving around a central force like the Sun.
these parameters have been transformed, giving the proper values
system in motion, you can verify that the centrifugal force,
equals the gravitational force (using now the moving frame
particular physical relationship (mv2/r=Gmm'/r2)
is still valid in this moving frame after the transformation
new proper values. However, this simple transformation (into the
units in motion) is quite insufficient to predict the exact
the orbit. This is just a simple mathematical transformation of
(into the moving frame units). The interesting point is
elsewhere as we
will see now.
orbiting mass around the Sun. In
physics, it is known that the gravitational field around the Sun
decreases exactly as the inverse square of the distance. This is
certainly correct. This quadratic decreases of the field
that the planetary orbits around
the Sun must have an elliptical shape, having axes in a fixed
in space. It is well known mathematically (see H. Goldstein,
Physics, Addison Wesley, Reading Mass, second edition, page 123,
that when the force (and not the field )
the axis of the ellipse rotates slowly around the Sun. This is
a precession of the elliptical orbit around the Sun. It is well
mathematically that an orbit with axes having a fixed direction
space is possible only, when the change of force around
central field varies as the inverse of a
Sun, the "exactly quadratic" decreasing
a well-accepted physical fact. However, we have seen that due to
principle of mass-energy conservation, the mass of an orbiting
different at different distances from the Sun. The mass of a
body, at the Earth distance, is different from the mass of the
body at Mercury distance. Therefore, even if the field
around the Sun is quadratic, the force acting on
is not quadratic.
orbiting the Sun at the Earth
distance. Then, he moves to half that distance. He finds that
gravitational field is increased by exactly four
However, since the mass of the body has changed due to
conservation, he will find that the gravitational forces
quite increased four times because the mass
has changed due to mass-energy conservation. Consequently, the force
on that body as a function of distance is not
quite quadratic. This is one of the phenomena that is
the advance of the perihelion of Mercury.
Furthermore, as explained in the book Einstein's Theory of
versus Classical Mechanics, not only the change of mass, but
change of proper values of "length" and "clock rate" adds a
contribution to the advance of the perihelion of Mercury as
demonstrated in the paper: "A
Detailed Classical Description of the Advance of the
The change of the proper values of "length" and "clock rate"
be taken into account. Their physical representation is more
their contributions make a further increase to the advance of
perihelion of Mercury.
must use the variable "t" (or
"T") which can be called "local time". However, the variable
be put in Newton's equations is not "time". It is the local
rate" that changes with the energy (where the clock is located).
any physical instrument being
able to measure "absolute time" in all frames, (not more than
meter or absolute mass) because all clocks change their rate
are moved to a new frame. The absolute values must be found by
calculation. This is the way Nature is made. However,
quite logical (and compatible with common sense).
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space-16.html Updated Sept. 1999