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Explanation of this
In this video, we see how the variation of the electric field, produced by the acceleration of an electric charge at the poles of a battery generates an electromagnetic field. This video visualizes the electric component of the electromagnetic field. The magnetic component is perpendicular but unseen. The electromagnetic field propagates in vacuum at the velocity of light, which is 3x1010 cm/s.
In the examples here, the electromagnetic wave is circularly polarized on the right and the left hand side direction. The phenomenon of circular polarization has been demonstrated directly by the american Beth in 1936 and also independently by the British Holbourn. In 1949, it was also demonstrated for microwaves by the italian Carrara. In those experiments, it was observed that rotation is induced to a disk (makes it rotate) when light is thrown on it. A complete description of these experiments is published in the excellent book : Physique atomique, Tome 1:Expériences et principes fondamentaux. 2e édition. Auteurs: B. Cagnac J.C. Pebey-Peyroula Ed. Dunod Université, Bordas Paris (1975) Pages 261 to 268 in Tome 1. For example, the diagram of the Beth apparatus is: Beth Apparatus
The motion of the batteries is responsible for the time of coherence of the wave. This time is recorded on each clock. Finally, we see the wavelengths of each wavetrain.
What “Light” is not.
We can show that the electromagnetic radiation cannot form circular expanding waves in all directions, similar to the ones (in 2D) at the surface of water, as erroneously claimed in some books. The emission of a stable concentrated wavetrain in one direction (as illustrated in this VIDEO) is absolutely necessary to explain the fact that individual photons issued from a remote star, billion of light years away, can always provide enough energy to excite the quantum state of an atom at the detector. It is important to recall that it is well observed that an atom recoils when a photon is emitted. Also, we know that the "sum" of the change of atom momentum plus the photon momentum is conserved (zero total change of momentum) during photon emission. Consequently, each emittted photon cannot be transmitted as a wave spreading in all directions, because this would not be compatible with the recoil of the atom in one particular direction. This is illustrated in the VIDEO here, which shows that the size of the electromagnetic wave–packet remains stable and does not increase in size without limit, as we would get from a wave model showing circles at the surface of water. The model showing circular waves spreading in all directions is therefore not compatible with the observation of atoms recoiling when a photon is emitted.
The accelerated electrons at the poles of a battery emit electromagnetic wavetrains in various directions. Furthermore, each wave train possesses momentum, and gives a recoil to the emitting source. However, since electromagnetic wavetrains are emitted randomly in all directions, the average density of wave packets decreases as the square of the distance, as observed experimentally. It is an error to believe that the density of each individual wave-packet decreases as a square of the distance. Instead, it is the number of wave packets, which decreases as a square of the distance.
It is well known that the description of a "particle" is not compatible with the description of a "wave". Consequently, the idea that “light” is a wave when we use a wave detector, and a particle when we use a particle detector (the so-called wave-particule duality) is too absurd to be considered here. Furthermore, the energy of light cannot be concentrated in zero volume inside a point particle. Light is nothing but pure electromagnetic energy forming wave packets, as shown in the video.
The formation of individual "Photons" will be illustrated in another video.
Your own test after
1-What is the time of coherence of the left polarized wavetrain? (in nanoseconds)
2-Using the velocity of light 3x1010 cm/s, what is the time of coherence of the right polarized wavetrain? (in nanoseconds)
3-What is the length of coherence of the left polarized wavetrain? (in nanometer)?
4-What is the length of coherence of the right polarized wavetrain? (in nanometer)?
5-What is the wavelength of the left polarized wavetrain? (in nanometer)?
6-What is the wavelength of the left polarized wavetrain? (in nanometer)?
7-What is the frequency of each wavetrain? In hertz)
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